Working capital

  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Inventory 386,830 340,014
Trade receivables 140,740 128,343
Trade payables -167,530 -179,125
Trade working capital (TWC) 360,040 289,231
Other receivables 30,909 21,387
Other current liabilities -43,389 -33,793
Working capital 347,561 276,825

The working capital movement in comparison to 2018 includes the divestment of the US business (see note 6.16.1).


8.8.1 Inventories


  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Components for the purpose of production 193,119 175,761
Semi-finished goods 2,831 2,313
Trading and finished products 190,880 161,939
Balance at 31 December 386,830 340,014


In 2019, Accell Group wrote down inventories by € 4.0 million to lower net realizable value (2018: € 4.1 million) of which € 1.7 million is recognized as cost of materials and consumables (2018: € 1.9 million) and € 2.3 million as other operating expenses (2018: € 2.2 million). In 2019 Accell Group reversed write-downs of € 1.4 million (2018: € 1.3 million) recognized as a reduction of cost of materials and consumables of € 0.1 million (2018: € 0.2 million) and € 1.3 million as a reduction of other operating expenses (2018: € 1.1 million). At the balance sheet date inventories with a carrying amount of approximately € 9.3 million (2018: € 12.3 million) were valued at lower net realizable value. Furthermore, inventories include goods in transit of € 70.3 million (2018: € 78.2 million) related to shipped goods for which Accell Group had acquired the economic ownership, but which have not yet been received.

Accounting policy

Inventories are measured at the lower of cost, using the first-in first-out (fifo) principle, and net realizable value. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of production overheads based on normal operating capacity. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.

8.8.2 Trade and other receivables


  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Trade receivables 140,740 128,343
Other receivables 30,909 21,387
Total 171,649 149,730


Trade receivables
Trade receivables consists of:

  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Trade receivables 150,141 137,092
Allowance for credit losses -9,401 -8,749
Balance at 31 December 140,740 128,343


The nominal value of the trade receivables is considered close to equal to the fair value. Trade receivables are non-interest-bearing and, depending on the season, are governed by a 30 to 150-day payment term.

The group applies the IFRS 9 simplified approach to measure expected credit losses which uses a lifetime expected loss allowance for all trade receivables. On that basis, the loss allowance was determined as follows:


  Weighted-average loss rate Trade receivables - gross Credit loss allowance Trade receivables - net
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000 € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Current (not past due) -0.2% 119,949 -237 119,712
Past due 0-90 days -15.3% 16,759 -2,561 14,198
Past due 91-360 days -16.5% 7,711 -1,273 6,438
Past due over 360 days -93.2% 5,722 -5,330 392
Total at 31 December   150,141 -9,401 140,740


  Weighted-average loss rate Trade receivables - gross Credit loss allowance Trade receivables - net
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000 € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Current (not past due) -0.2% 108,964 -271 108,693
Past due 0-90 days -2.3% 14,259 -329 13,930
Past due 91-360 days -23.5% 6,518 -1,531 4,987
Past due over 360 days -90.0% 7,351 -6,618 733
Total at 31 December   137,092 -8,749 128,343


The loss allowances for trade receivables reconciles to the opening loss allowances as follows:

  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Balance at 1 January 8,749 10,224
Initial application IFRS 9 - 805
Restated balance at 1 January 8,749 11,029
Added through business combination - 138
Amounts written of -4,511 -3,560
Credit losses recognized 1) 5,066 1,062
Effect of movement in exchange rates 98 80
Balance at 31 December 9,401 8,749
1) € 2,233 thousand is attributable to continuing operations and € 2,832 thousand is attributable to discontinued operations in 2019.

Other receivables
The other receivables can be specified as follows:

  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
VAT receivable 7,301 6,248
Import duties receivable 35 -
Other taxes and social charges 99 220
Receivables from non-consolidated companies 261 201
Prepayments suppliers 4,311 2,963
Prepayments other 1,873 1,937
Bonus receivable 4,841 4,169
Receivables related to the sale of discontinued operations 3,600 -
Other current assets 8,589 5,649
Balance at 31 December 30,909 21,387

Other receivables were assessed for impairment and impairment was deemed immaterial.


Accounting estimates trade receivables

For trade receivables, Accell Group applies a simplified approach to the calculation of expected credit losses by recognizing a loss allowance based on lifetime expected credit losses at each reporting date. Individually significant trade receivables are tested for impairment on an individual basis. The remaining trade receivables are assessed collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics and the days past due. Accell Group has established a provision matrix that is based on its historical credit loss experience, adjusted for forward-looking factors specific to the debtors and the economic environment.

Accell Group makes estimates in the determination of discount accruals, included in trade receivables. When discounts are provided to customers, these reduce the transaction price and consequently the revenue. The conditional discounts in revenue are estimated based on accumulated experience supported by historical and current sales information. Expected sales volumes are determined taking into account (historical) sales patterns and other relevant information. A discount accrual is recognized for expected volume and year-end discounts payable to customers in relation to sales made until the end of the reporting period.

Accounting estimates other receivables

For other receivables, Accell Group establishes an impairment loss allowance on a collective and individual assessment basis, by considering past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions using the general approach under IFRS 9.

Bonus receivables is the best estimate of the expected amount to be received from suppliers and are based on (annual) agreements. The bonus is usually a fixed or graduated percentage of the purchase value and advance payments received. When receipt of a bonus can be expected with a reasonable level of certainty, it is reflected in the carrying value of inventory or cost of goods sold. 

Accounting policies

Trade and other receivables are held in order to collect the related cash flows. These receivables are measured at fair value and subsequently at amortized cost less any impairment losses. Trade and other receivables are derecognized when substantially all risks and rewards are transferred or if Accell Group does not retain control over the receivables.

Impairment losses related to financial assets are presented separately in the consolidated income statement. When Accell Group considers that there are no realistic expectations of recovering a trade receivable, the relevant amount is written off. Indicators that there is no reasonable expectation of recovery include, amongst others, the failure of a debtor to engage in a repayment plan with Accell Group, and a failure to make contractual payments for a period longer than 360 days past due. If the amount of impairment loss subsequently decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognized, then the previously recognized impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss.

8.8.3 Trade payables and other current liabilities

  2019 2018
  € x 1,000 € x 1,000
Trade payables 167,530 179,125
VAT payable 9,165 7,868
Import duties payable 996 980
Taxes on wages and social charges 3,339 4,501
Payables to non-consolidated companies 158 9
Personnel-related liabilities 11,625 9,311
Freight cost payable 438 500
Claims payable 290 291
Other invoices receivable 8,345 4,134
Interest and bank cost payable 591 1,501
Other current liabilities 8,442 4,698
Balance at 31 December 210,918 212,918


Accell Group operates two supply chain finance programmes that enable participating suppliers to discount their invoices for earlier payment with a participating bank based on individual contractual agreements between the supplier and the participating bank. Trade payables at 31 December 2019 include an amount of € 22.4 million (2018: €22.1 million) related to the participating suppliers.

Accounting judgement

Accell Group has analyzed its supply chain finance programmes to determine whether it should derecognize its original liability, the trade payable to the supplier, and recognize a new interest-bearing liability to the bank. Based on the analysis of (a) the extinguishment criteria of the trade payable and/or (b) if the term of the trade payable had been substantially modified, Accell Group concluded that payment obligations to participating suppliers should remain in trade payables.

Accounting policy

Trade payables and other current liabilities are initially recognized at fair value (less any directly attributable transaction costs) and subsequently measured at amortized cost. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if Accell Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided and the obligation can be estimated reliably. Trade payables and other liabilities are derecognized when the contractual obligation is either discharged or cancelled or has expired.